by Aswelo Tembo

In many African societies they had different ways of extracting plant edible and non-edible oils. However, as populations grew they suppressed the output of these oil production levels.
As the demand for edible oil and cash grew, most rural population could not afford the imported and well packaged cooking oil bottles. Most developing countries could not utilize the available technology to achieve the objective of satisfying the population with enough edible oil, let alone the rural poor.Edible oil is one of the sources of energy for human beings. But most of the technology used to extract plant oil is out of reach to many rural poor.
It is my view that manual powered machines could bridge up the gap. One such machine is the Yenga Press Machine. The machine is built on the idea developed by Dr. Bielenberg in Arusha Tanzania. It can be manufactured and repaired locally, even from good scrap Iron or/and Steel.

The machine uses one full grown-up man to press 50 kg of sunflower seed per one man-day. This roughly ends up producing per day:
+ 10 litres of edible oil
+ 35 kg of high quality sunflower cake
Use clean refined sunflower oil to lubricate all the moving parts of the machine.

The whole village can get a loan or buy the machine as a co-operative. The machine should be fixed in a permanent building with a storeroom.
Each member grows sunflower, which after harvest brings, the sunflower seed for pressing at the co-operative store. The co-operative could then charges one litre of oil from every four litres of oil produced [i.e. a 1:4 ratio], however this charge is just an example the co-operative can put up a charge that suits their economic terms.
This charge should be enough to pay for maintenance of the machine and a little pay for the caretaker.
Due to the fact that, the machine is easy to handle and work with, therefore, each member who brings seed for pressing does the pressing on his own.If the co-operative members cannot be trained to refine the oil, which is the most complicated part, then the caretaker can do the refining process.
The following are three ways of refining the cooking oil extracted:
a. Mix 10 litres of cooking oil to 1 litre of water [i.e. 1:10 ratio] and boil the mixture while stirring continuously for 45 minutes.
b. Build up a filter
c. Leave the oil in a container for several days and allow the sediments to settle. Then decant the cooking oil.

The caretaker has to keep both the physical and financial records.

a. Oil production record sheet
Date machine serviced:………………………………………………….
Date next machine service: ………………………………………………
1. Date Sunflower seed [kg]
2. Crushed  Sunflower cake [kg]
3. Produced Oil litres produced Oil litres
4. Refined Sunflower cake [kg]
5. Sold Oil litres sold     

b. Oil project Cash Book
Date Details Cash-in Cash-out Balance

a. Planting time: during the rain season when it is warm and wet
b. Plant spacing: 75 cm x 30 cm
c. Plant population: 40000-44000 pp/ha
d. Seed rate: 5-7 kg/ha
e. Soil requirements: Where there is heavy rains sandy soils would do better as sunflower is very sensitive to water logging. Best soils are clay-loams. Best pH values are 6.5. Apply a lot of organic matter to the soils for good results and practice crop rotation with legumes.
f. Pests: Birds, Cutworm, Stem Borers [in the field] and weevils, Beetles [in stored seed]
g. Diseases: Alternaria, Septoria [which are Leafspots] and Schleroteria [which is a Stem rot]
h. Harvesting: When the head turns completely brown and the seed shows no sign of water in the endosperm.
      Store at moisture content of 10 %.
      Yields depend on the variety of the seed and crop management but yields of    
      about 1500 kg are recommended.


1 Kommentar zum Eintrag “Projekte”. Kommentare abonnieren.

  1. MWEWLA TEMBO sagt:

    sir am happy to be tought at twin fountain agriculture college because the skill thata i have gotten from that side are basically what am using the college that iam am now sir. basically sir the term so to say useless is what i can use to justify my point what most of the students from that are half baked.
    personally i feel like caming back to twin fountain and get more basic learning on agricultural skills.
    yours formal and still your student.
    mwelwa tembo

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